Cybersecurity Essentials v1.1 Final Quiz Answers Type A

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Cybersecurity Essentials v1.1 Final Quiz Answers Type A
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Cybersecurity Essentials v1.1 Final Quiz Answers Type A

1. A cybersecurity specialist is asked to identify the potential criminals known to attack the organization. Which type of hackers would the cybersecurity specialist be least concerned with?

black hat hackers
gray hat hackers
script kiddies
white hat hackers*

Explanation:
Hackers are classified by colors to help define the purpose of their break-in activities.

2. Which statement best describes a motivation of hacktivists?

They are trying to show off their hacking skills.
They are interested in discovering new exploits.
They are curious and learning hacking skills.
They are part of a protest group behind a political cause.*

Explanation:
Each type of cybercriminal has a distinct motivation for his or her actions.

3. What is an example of early warning systems that can be used to thwart cybercriminals?

Infragard
ISO/IEC 27000 program
Honeynet Project*
CVE database

Explanation:
Early warning systems help identify attacks and can be used by cybersecurity specialists to protect systems.

4. Which technology should be used to enforce the security policy that a computing device must be checked against the latest antivirus update before the device is allowed to connect to the campus network?

SAN
VPN
NAC*
NAS

Explanation:
A cybersecurity specialist must be aware of the technologies available to enforce its organization’s security policy.

5. Which data state is maintained in NAS and SAN services?

stored data*
data in-transit
encrypted data
data in-process

Explanation:
A cybersecurity specialist must be familiar with the types of technologies used to store, transmit, and process data.

6. What are three states of data during which data is vulnerable? (Choose three.)

purged data
stored data*
data in-process*
data encrypted
data decrypted
data in-transit*

Explanation:
A cybersecurity specialist must be aware of each of the three states of data to effectively protect data and information. Purged data was stored data. Encrypted and decrypted data can be in any of the three states.

7. Which technology can be used to ensure data confidentiality?

hashing
identity management
encryption*
RAID

Explanation:
A cybersecurity specialist must be aware of the technologies available which support the CIA triad.

8. A cybersecurity specialist is working with the IT staff to establish an effective information security plan. Which combination of security principles forms the foundation of a security plan?

secrecy, identify, and nonrepudiation
confidentiality, integrity, and availability*
technologies, policies, and awareness
encryption, authentication, and identification

Explanation:
The CIA Triad is the foundation upon which all information management systems are developed.

9. What are the two most effective ways to defend against malware? (Choose two.)

Implement strong passwords.
Implement a VPN.
Implement RAID.
Update the operating system and other application software.*
Implement network firewalls.
Install and update antivirus software.*

Explanation:
A cybersecurity specialist must be aware of the technologies and measures that are used as countermeasures to protect the organization from threats and vulnerabilities.

10. What is an impersonation attack that takes advantage of a trusted relationship between two systems?

man-in-the-middle
spoofing*
spamming
sniffing

Explanation:
A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of malware and attacks that threaten an organization.

11. Users report that the network access is slow. After questioning the employees, the network administrator learned that one employee downloaded a third-party scanning program for the printer. What type of malware might be introduced that causes slow performance of the network?

virus
worm*
spam
phishing

Explanation:
A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of malware and attacks that threaten an organization.

12. Which statement describes a distributed denial of service attack?”

An attacker views network traffic to learn authentication credentials.
An attacker builds a botnet comprised of zombies.*
An attacker sends an enormous quantity of data that a server cannot handle.
One computer accepts data packets based on the MAC address of another computer.

Explanation:
A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of malware and attacks that threaten an organization.

13. What type of application attack occurs when data goes beyond the memory areas allocated to the application?

buffer overflow*
RAM Injection
SQL injection
RAM spoofing

Explanation:
A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of malware and attacks that threaten an organization.

14. What type of attack has an organization experienced when an employee installs an unauthorized device on the network to view network traffic?

Sniffing*
spoofing
phishing
spamming

Explanation:
A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of malware and attacks that threaten an organization.

15. A penetration testing service hired by the company has reported that a backdoor was identified on the network. What action should the organization take to find out if systems have been compromised?

Look for policy changes in Event Viewer.
Scan the systems for viruses.
Look for unauthorized accounts.*
Look for usernames that do not have passwords.

Explanation:
A cybersecurity specialist needs to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of malware and attacks that threaten an organization.

16. The IT department is tasked to implement a system that controls what a user can and cannot do on the corporate network. Which process should be implemented to meet the requirement?

user login auditing
a biometric fingerprint reader
observations to be provided to all employees
a set of attributes that describes user access rights*

Explanation:
Access control prevents unauthorized user from gaining access to sensitive data and networked systems. There are several technologies used to implement effective access control strategies.

17. Smart cards and biometrics are considered to be what type of access control?

administrative
technological
logical*
physical

Explanation:
Access control prevents an unauthorized user from gaining access to sensitive data and networked systems. There are several technologies used to implement effective access control strategies.

18. Which access control should the IT department use to restore a system back to its normal state?

compensative
preventive
corrective*
detective

Explanation:
Access control prevents an unauthorized user from gaining access to sensitive data and networked systems. There are several technologies used to implement effective access control strategies.

19. A user has a large amount of data that needs to be kept confidential. Which algorithm would best meet this requirement?

3DES*
ECC
RSA
Diffie-Hellman

Explanation:
Encryption is an important technology used to protect confidentiality. It is important to understand the characteristics of the various encryption methodologies.

20. Alice and Bob use a pre-shared key to exchange a confidential message. If Bob wants to send a confidential message to Carol, what key should he use?

the private key of Carol
the public key of Bob
the same pre-shared key he used with Alice
a new pre-shared key*

Explanation:
Encryption is an important technology used to protect confidentiality. It is important to understand the characteristics of the various encryption methodologies.

21. What happens as the key length increases in an encryption application?

Keyspace increases proportionally.
Keyspace decreases exponentially.
Keyspace decreases proportionally.
Keyspace increases exponentially.*

Explanation:
Encryption is an important technology used to protect confidentiality. It is important to understand the characteristics of the various encryption methodologies.

22. In which situation would a detective control be warranted?

when the organization needs to repair damage
when the organization needs to look for prohibited activity*
when the organization cannot use a guard dog, so it is necessary to consider an alternative
after the organization has experienced a breach in order to restore everything back to a normal state

Explanation:
Access control prevents an unauthorized user from gaining access to sensitive data and networked systems. There are several technologies used to implement effective access control strategies.

23. An organization has implemented antivirus software. What type of security control did the company implement?

recovery control*
deterrent control
compensative control
detective control

Explanation:
A cybersecurity specialist must be aware of the technologies and measures that are used as countermeasures to protect the organization from threats and vulnerabilities.

24. You have been asked to describe data validation to the data entry clerks in accounts receivable. Which of the following are good examples of strings, integers, and decimals?

800-900-4560, 4040-2020-8978-0090, 01/21/2013
male, $25.25, veteran
female, 9866, $125.50*
yes/no 345-60-8745, TRF562

Explanation:
A string is a group of letters, numbers and special characters. An integer is whole number.  A decimal is a  number that is not a fraction.

25. Which hashing technology requires keys to be exchanged?

salting
AES
HMAC*
MD5

Explanation:
The difference between HMAC and hashing is the use of keys.

26. Your organization will be handling market trades. You will be required to verify the identify of each customer who is executing a transaction. Which technology should be implemented to authenticate and verify customer electronic transactions?

data hashing
symmetrical encryption
digital certificates*
asymmetrical encryption

Explanation:
Digital certificates protect the parties involved in secure communications.

27. What technology should be implemented to verify the identity of an organization, to authenticate its website, and to provide an encrypted connection between a client and the website?

digital signature
digital certificate*
asymmetric encryption
salting

Explanation:
Encryption is an important technology used to protect confidentiality. It is important to understand the characteristics of the various encryption methodologies.

28. Alice and Bob are using a digital signature to sign a document. What key should Alice use to sign the document so that Bob can make sure that the document came from Alice?

private key from Bob
private key from Alice*
username and password from Alice
public key from Bob

Explanation:
Alice and Bob are used to explain asymmetric cryptography used in digital signatures. Alice uses a private key to encrypt the message digest. The message, encrypted message digest, and the public key are used to create the signed document and prepare it for transmission.

29. What is a feature of a cryptographic hash function?

Hashing requires a public and a private key.
The hash function is a one-way mathematical function.*
The output has a variable length.
The hash input can be calculated given the output value.

Explanation:
Data integrity is one of the three guiding security principles. A cybersecurity specialist should be familiar with the tools and technologies used ensure data integrity.

30. A VPN will be used within the organization to give remote users secure access to the corporate network. What does IPsec use to authenticate the origin of every packet to provide data integrity checking?

salting
HMAC*
CRC
password

Explanation:
HMAC is an algorithm used to authenticate. The sender and receiver have a secret key that is used along with the data to ensure the message origin as well as the authenticity of the data.

31. Which hashing algorithm is recommended for the protection of sensitive, unclassified information?

MD5
SHA-256*
3DES
AES-256

Explanation:
Data integrity is one of the three guiding security principles. A cybersecurity specialist should be familiar with the tools and technologies used ensure data integrity.

32. Your risk manager just distributed a chart that uses three colors to identify the level of threat to key assets in the information security systems. Red represents high level of risk, yellow represents average level of threat and green represents low level of threat. What type of risk analysis does this chart represent?

quantitative analysis
exposure factor analysis
loss analysis
qualitative analysis*

Explanation:
A qualitative or quantitative risk analysis is used to identify and prioritize threats to the organization.

33. What is it called when an organization only installs applications that meet its guidelines, and administrators increase security by eliminating all other applications?

asset classification
asset availability
asset standardization*
asset identification

Explanation:
An organization needs to know what hardware and software are present as a prerequisite to knowing what the configuration parameters need to be. Asset management includes a complete inventory of hardware and software. Asset standards identify specific hardware and software products that the organization uses and supports. When a failure occurs, prompt action helps to maintain both access and security.

34. Keeping data backups offsite is an example of which type of disaster recovery control?

management
preventive*
detective
corrective

Explanation:
A disaster recovery plan enables an organization to prepare for potential disasters and minimize the resulting downtime.

35. What are two incident response phases? (Choose two.)

detection and analysis*
confidentiality and eradication
prevention and containment
mitigation and acceptance
containment and recovery*
risk analysis and high availability

Explanation:
When an incident occurs, the organization must know how to respond. An organization needs to develop an incident response plan that includes several phases.

36. The team is in the process of performing a risk analysis on the database services. The information collected includes the initial value of these assets, the threats to the assets and the impact of the threats. What type of risk analysis is the team performing by calculating the annual loss expectancy?

quantitative analysis*
qualitative analysis
loss analysis
protection analysis

Explanation:
A qualitative or quantitative risk analysis is used to identify and prioritize threats to the organization.

37. What approach to availability provides the most comprehensive protection because multiple defenses coordinate together to prevent attacks?

obscurity
limiting
layering*
diversity

Explanation:
Defense in depth utilizes multiple layers of security controls.

38. Being able to maintain availability during disruptive events describes which of the principles of high availability?

fault tolerance
system resiliency*
single point of failure
uninterruptible services

Explanation:
High availability can be achieved by eliminating or reducing single points of failure, by implementing system resiliency, and by designing for fault tolerance.

39. There are many environments that require five nines, but a five nines environment may be cost prohibitive. What is one example of where the five nines environment might be cost prohibitive?

department stores at the local mall
the New York Stock Exchange*
the U.S. Department of Education
the front office of a major league sports team

Explanation:
System and data availability is a critical responsibility of a cybersecurity specialist. It is important to understand the technologies, process, and controls used to protect provide high availability.

40. Which risk mitigation strategies include outsourcing services and purchasing insurance?

reduction
avoidance
acceptance
transfer*

Explanation:
Risk mitigation lessens the exposure of an organization to threats and vulnerabilities by transferring, accepting, avoiding, or taking an action to reduce risk.

41. Which utility uses the Internet Control Messaging Protocol (ICMP)?

NTP
Ping*
RIP
DNS

Explanation:
ICMP is used by network devices to send error messages.

42. Which technology can be used to protect VoIP against eavesdropping?

strong authentication
encrypted voice messages*
ARP
SSH

Explanation:
Many advanced technologies such as VoIP, streaming video, and electronic conferencing require advanced countermeasures.

43. What Windows utility should be used to configure password rules and account lockout policies on a system that is not part of a domain?

Local Security Policy tool*
Event Viewer security log
Computer Management
Active Directory Security tool

Explanation:
A cybersecurity specialist must be aware of the technologies and measures that are used as countermeasures to protect the organization from threats and vulnerabilities. Local Security Policy, Event Viewer, and Computer Management are Windows utilities that are all used in the security equation.

44. In a comparison of biometric systems, what is the crossover error rate?

rate of false positives and rate of acceptability
rate of false negatives and rate of false positives*
rate of rejection and rate of false negatives
rate of acceptability and rate of false negatives

Explanation:
In comparing biometric systems, there are several important factors to consider including accuracy, speed or throughput rate, and acceptability to users.

45. Which protocol would be used to provide security for employees that access systems remotely from home?

WPA
SSH*
SCP
Telnet

Explanation:
Various application layer protocols are used to for communications between systems. A secure protocol provides a secure channel over an unsecured network.

46. Which three protocols can use Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)? (Choose three.)

WPA*
TKIP
WPA2*
802.11i*
802.11q
WEP

Explanation:
Various protocols can be used to provide secure communication systems. AES is the strongest encryption algorithm.

47. Mutual authentication can prevent which type of attack?

wireless poisoning
wireless sniffing
wireless IP spoofing
man-in-the-middle*

Explanation:
A cybersecurity specialist must be aware of the technologies and measures that are used as countermeasures to protect the organization from threats and vulnerabilities.

48. Which website offers guidance on putting together a checklist to provide guidance on configuring and hardening operating systems?

CERT
The National Vulnerability Database website*
The Advanced Cyber Security Center
Internet Storm Center

Explanation:
There are several cybersecurity information websites that a cybersecurity specialist uses to evaluate the potential vulnerabilities of an organization. Some of these websites are the National Vulnerability Database, CERT, the Internet Storm Center, and the Advanced Cyber Security Center.

49. Which threat is mitigated through user awareness training and tying security awareness to performance reviews?

user-related threats*
device-related threats
cloud-related threats
physical threats

Explanation:
Cybersecurity domains provide a framework for evaluating and implementing controls to protect the assets of an organization. Each domain has various countermeasures available to manage threats.

50. HVAC, water system, and fire systems fall under which of the cybersecurity domains?

device
network
physical facilities*
user

Explanation:
Cybersecurity domains provide a framework for evaluating and implementing controls to protect the assets of an organization.

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